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A review of analgesic and emotive breathing: a multidisciplinary approach

Authors Bordoni B, Marelli F, Bordoni G

Received 24 November 2015

Accepted for publication 31 December 2015

Published 29 February 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 97—102

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S101208

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Devang Sanghavi

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Bruno Bordoni,1–3 Fabiola Marelli,2,3 Giovannni Bordoni,2,3

1Department of Cardiology, Santa Maria Nascente IRCCS, Milan, Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Osteopathy, Centre de recherche d’emploi du Sud-Ouest (CRESO), Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Falconara Marittima, Ancona, Italy; 3Department of Osteopathy, Centre de recherche d’emploi du Sud-Ouest (CRESO), Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Castellanza, Varese, Italy

Abstract: The diaphragm is the primary muscle involved in breathing and other non-primarily respiratory functions such as the maintenance of correct posture and lumbar and sacroiliac movement. It intervenes to facilitate cleaning of the upper airways through coughing, facilitates the evacuation of the intestines, and promotes the redistribution of the body’s blood. The diaphragm also has the ability to affect the perception of pain and the emotional state of the patient, functions that are the subject of this article. The aim of this article is to gather for the first time, within a single text, information on the nonrespiratory functions of the diaphragm muscle and its analgesic and emotional response functions. It also aims to highlight and reflect on the fact that when the diaphragm is treated manually, a daily occurrence for manual operators, it is not just an area of musculature that is treated but the entire body, including the psyche. This reflection allows for a multidisciplinary approach to the diaphragm and the collaboration of various medical and nonmedical practitioners, with the ultimate goal of regaining or improving the patient’s physical and mental well-being.

Keywords: diaphragm, fascia, osteopathic, pain, motions, manual therapy

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