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A randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of amlodipine on myocardial iron deposition in pediatric patients with thalassemia major

Authors Khaled A, Salem HA, Ezzat DA, Seif HM, Rabee H

Received 10 April 2019

Accepted for publication 20 June 2019

Published 22 July 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 2427—2436

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S211630

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Anastasios Lymperopoulos


Arwa Khaled,1 Hoda A Salem,2 Dina A Ezzat,3 Hadeel M Seif,4 Hoda Rabee5

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University Hospital, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, 62515, Egypt; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al–azhar University, Girl Branch, Cairo, 12655, Egypt; 3Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, 12568, Egypt; 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Cairo, Cairo 8582, Egypt; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62514, Egypt

Background: Mortality rates increase due to iron deposition in the cardiac muscles of thalassemia major (TM) patients. Iron overload cardiomyopathy could be treated with a combination therapy of an iron chelator and an L-type calcium channel blocker. We designed a randomized controlled study to assess the potential of amlodipine, alongside chelation, in reducing myocardial iron concentration in TM patients compared with a placebo.
Objectives: This study aims to estimate the change in myocardial iron concentration (MIC) determined by magnetic resonance imaging after 6 months of treatment with amlodipine, as well as measuring the changes in the secondary outcomes (liver iron concentration (LIC), serum ferritin level (SF), and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF)) of study participants.
Methods: A single, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 40 β-Thalassemia major patients aged between 6 and 20 years old, who received either oral amlodipine 2.5–5 mg/day or a placebo, in addition to a Deferasirox chelation regimen in a 1:1 allocation ratio.
Results: After 6 months, a significant reduction was noted in the MIC of patients receiving amlodipine (n=20), compared with the patients receiving the placebo (n=20). At baseline, the mean was 0.76±0.11 mg/g dry weight, while at 6 months, the mean was 0.51±0.07 mg/g dry weight (p<0.001). Also, there was a significant change in the myocardial T2* after 6 months; the amlodipine increased the myocardial T2* from 40.63±5.45 ms at baseline to 43.25±5.35 ms (p<0.001). However, amlodipine did not significantly affect the secondary outcomes by the end of the study.
Conclusion: The addition of amlodipine to the standard chelation therapy in transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients improves myocardial iron overload without increasing the adverse effects.

Keywords: thalassemia major, amlodipine, magnetic resonance imaging, myocardial iron concentration

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