A psychometric evaluation of the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) cognitive distress, fatigue, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia subscales in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
April N Naegeli1, Timothy E Stump2, Risa P Hayes1
1Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Consultant, Indianapolis, IN, USA
Objective: To explore the use of Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) Cognitive Distress, Fatigue, Hyperglycemia, and Hypoglycemia subscales as measures of acute diabetesassociated symptoms in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods: Our study was conducted in context of two international, multicenter, randomized clinical trials for inhaled insulin. Confirmatory factor analyses and assessments of reliability and construct validity were performed.
Results: Study participants were 371 patients with type 2 (56% male; mean age, 57 years) and 481 with type 1 diabetes (57% male, mean age, 40 years). In both populations a four-factor model was the best fit. Cronbach’s α ≥ 0.79 and intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.63; subscales correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with measures of well-being and satisfaction (0.12 ≤ r ≤ 0.71). In patients with type 1 diabetes, three subscales correlated (P < 0.05) with A1C.
Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the DSC-R Cognitive Distress, Fatigue, Hyperglycemia, and Hypoglycemia suggest they may be utilized in clinical trials as reliable and valid measures of acute symptoms of diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised, DSC-R, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, psychometric validation
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