A preliminary study of Patient Dignity Inventory validation among patients hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward
Received 15 September 2016
Accepted for publication 9 December 2016
Published 23 January 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 177—190
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Rosaria Di Lorenzo,1 Giulio Cabri,2 Eleonora Carretti,3 Giacomo Galli,4 Nina Giambalvo,4 Giulia Rioli,4 Serena Saraceni,4 Giulia Spiga,4 Cinzia Del Giovane,5 Paola Ferri6
1Mental Health Department, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment in NOCSAE General Hospital, 2Private Accredited Psychiatric Hospital villa Igea, Modena, 3Nursing Home of Rubiera, Reggio Emilia, 4Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 5PhD Statistics Unit, Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, 6Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Purpose: To investigate the perception of dignity among patients hospitalized in a psychiatric setting using the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), which had been first validated in oncologic field among terminally ill patients.
Patients and methods: After having modified two items, we administered the Italian version of PDI to all patients hospitalized in a public psychiatric ward (Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment of a northern Italian town), who provided their consent and completed it at discharge, from October 21, 2015 to May 31, 2016. We excluded minors and patients with moderate/severe dementia, with poor knowledge of Italian language, who completed PDI in previous hospitalizations and/or were hospitalized for <72 hours. We collected the demographic and clinical variables of our sample (n=135). We statistically analyzed PDI scores, performing Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and principal factor analysis, followed by orthogonal and oblique rotation. We concomitantly administered to our sample other scales (Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Global Assessment of Functioning and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales) to analyze the PDI concurrent validity.
Results: With a response rate of 93%, we obtained a mean PDI score of 48.27 (±19.59 SD) with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient =0.93). The factorial analysis showed the following three factors with eigenvalue >1 (Kaiser’s criterion), which explained >80% of total variance with good internal consistency: 1) “Loss of self-identity and social role”, 2) “Anxiety and uncertainty for future” and 3) “Loss of personal autonomy”. The PDI and the three-factor scores were statistically significantly positively correlated with the Hamilton Scales for Depression and Anxiety but not with other scale scores.
Conclusion: Our preliminary research suggests that PDI can be a reliable tool to assess patients’ dignity perception in a psychiatric setting, until now little investigated, helping professionals to improve quality of care and patients to accept treatments.
Keywords: dignity experience, Patient Dignity Inventory, patients hospitalized in a psychiatric ward, factor analysis, validation study, dignity distress measurement
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