A Preliminary Investigation into the Association of Chloride Concentration on Morbidity and Mortality in Hospitalized Canine Patients
Received 13 March 2020
Accepted for publication 5 June 2020
Published 15 July 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 57—69
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Young Lyoo
Madeline B Libin, Joel G Weltman, Jennifer Prittie
Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
Correspondence: Madeline B Libin
Department of Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Medical Center, 510 E. 62nd Street, New York, NY 10065, USA
Tel +1 212 838 8100
Fax +1 212 752 2592
Purpose: To evaluate whole blood chloride concentration and hospital-acquired AKI in hospitalized canine patients. Secondary outcome measures included the volume-adjusted chloride load, in-hospital mortality and length of ICU stay.
Patients and Methods: This is a prospective, observational study. Sixty dogs admitted to the ICU and receiving IV fluid therapy for > 24 hours from February 2018 to July 2019. Corrected chloride and creatinine concentrations were obtained twice daily. Total volume of IV fluid and total chloride load were recorded. Volume-adjusted chloride load (VACL) was calculated by dividing the chloride administered by the volume of fluid administered. Hospital-acquired AKI was defined as an increase in creatinine of ≥ 26.5 μmol/L (0.3 mg/dL) or 150% from baseline to maximum. Survival to hospital discharge or non-survival and ICU length of stay were also recorded.
Results: Fifteen out of 60 patients developed hospital-acquired AKI. Maximum corrected chloride was significantly different in AKI group (median 122.3 mmol/L) vs non-AKI group (median 118.1 mmol/L; p=0.0002). Six out of 60 patients developed hyperchloremia. Hyperchloremic patients were significantly more likely to develop in-hospital AKI (p=0.03). Patients hospitalized ≥ 2 days had a significantly higher [Cl−]max compared to those with shorter ICU stay (121.8 ± 5.9 mmol/L vs 117.5 ± 4.3 mmol/L; p=0.002). Eight out of 60 patients were non-survivors. Maximum corrected chloride and creatinine concentrations were not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. VACL was not significantly different between AKI or mortality groups.
Conclusion: Maximum corrected chloride concentration was significantly higher in dogs with hospital-acquired AKI, even amongst dogs without hyperchloremia. Additionally, maximum corrected chloride concentrations were significantly higher in dogs hospitalized in the ICU longer compared to those hospitalized for fewer than two days. There was no significant difference in VACL in any of the outcome groups. Results from this study suggest alterations in chloride may be observed alongside the development of acute kidney injuries. Future studies in critically ill dogs are warranted.
Keywords: acute kidney injury, IV fluid, electrolytes, hyperchloremia, volume-adjusted chloride load
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]