A pilot study: portable out-of-center sleep testing as an early sleep apnea screening tool in acute ischemic stroke
Authors Chernyshev OY, McCarty DE, Moul DE, Liendo C, Caldito GC, Munjampalli SK, Kelley R, Chesson Jr AL
Received 31 March 2015
Accepted for publication 3 July 2015
Published 20 October 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 127—138
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Steven A Shea
Oleg Y Chernyshev,1 David E McCarty,1 Douglas E Moul,2 Cesar Liendo,1 Gloria C Caldito,1 Sai K Munjampalli,1 Roger E Kelley,3 Andrew L Chesson Jr1
1Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center at Shreveport, LA 2Sleep Disorders Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3Department of Neurology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA
Introduction: Prompt diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is critical for optimal clinical outcomes, but in-laboratory conventional polysomnograms (PSG) are not routinely practical. Though portable out-of-center type III cardiopulmonary sleep studies (out-of-center cardiopulmonary sleep testing [OCST]) are widely available, these studies have not been validated in patients who have recently suffered from AIS. We hypothesized that OCST in patients with AIS would yield similar results when compared to conventional PSG.
Methods: Patients with AIS had simultaneous type III OCST and PSG studies performed within 72 hours from symptom onset. The accuracy of OCST was compared to PSG using: chi-square tests, receiver operatory characteristic curves, Bland–Altman plot, paired Student's t-test/Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV).
Results: Twenty-one out of 23 subjects with AIS (age 61±9.4 years; 52% male; 58% African-American) successfully completed both studies (9% technical failure). Nearly all (95%) had Mallampati IV posterior oropharynx; the mean neck circumference was 16.8±1.6 in. and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 30±7 kg/m2. The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) provided by OCST was similar to that provided by PSG (19.8±18.0 vs 22.0±22.7, respectively; P=0.49). On identifying subjects by OCST with an AHI ≥5 on PSG, OCST had the following parameters: sensitivity 100%, specificity 85.7%, PPV 93%, and NPV 100%. On identifying subjects with an AHI ≥15 on PSG, OCST parameters were as follows: sensitivity 100%, specificity 83.3%, PPV 81.8%, and NPV 100%. Bland–Altman plotting showed an overall diagnostic agreement between OCST and PSG modalities for an AHI cutoff >5, despite fine-grained differences in estimated AHIs.
Conclusion: Compared with PSG, OCST provides similar diagnostic information when run simultaneously in AIS patients. OCST is a reliable screening tool for early diagnosis of OSA in AIS patients.
Keywords: portable clinical screening, obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis, acute ischemic stroke, sleep testing in stroke, acute sleep medicine
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