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A novel nano-copper-bearing stainless steel with reduced Cu2+ release only inducing transient foreign body reaction via affecting the activity of NF-κB and Caspase 3

Authors Wang L, Ren L, Tang T, Dai K, Yang K, Hao Y

Received 10 June 2015

Accepted for publication 20 August 2015

Published 29 October 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 6725—6739


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Lei Wang,1,* Ling Ren,2,* Tingting Tang,1 Kerong Dai,1 Ke Yang,2 Yongqiang Hao1

1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Foreign body reaction induced by biomaterials is a serious problem in clinical applications. Although 317L-Cu stainless steel (317L-Cu SS) is a new type of implant material with antibacterial ability and osteogenic property, the foreign body reaction level still needs to be assessed due to its Cu2+ releasing property. For this purpose, two macrophage cell lines were selected to detect cellular proliferation, apoptosis, mobility, and the secretions of inflammatory cytokines with the influence of 317L-Cu SS. Our results indicated that 317L-Cu SS had no obvious effect on the proliferation and apoptosis of macrophages; however, it significantly increased cellular migration and TNF-α secretion. Then, C57 mice were used to assess foreign body reaction induced by 317L-Cu SS. We observed significantly enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells (primarily macrophages) with increased TNF-α secretion and apoptosis level in tissues around the materials in the early stage of implantation. With tissue healing, both inflammation and apoptosis significantly decreased. Further, we discovered that NF-κB pathway and Caspase 3 played important roles in 317L-Cu SS induced inflammation and apoptosis. We concluded that 317L-Cu SS could briefly promote the inflammation and apoptosis of surrounding tissues by regulating the activity of NF-κB pathway and Caspase 3. All these discoveries demonstrated that 317L-Cu SS has a great potential for clinical application.

Keywords: nano-copper, foreign body reaction, inflammation, apoptosis, NF-κB, Caspase 3

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