Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 9 » Issue 1

A new approach for noninvasive transdermal determination of blood uric acid levels

Authors Ching CTS, Yong KK, Yao YD, Shen HT, Hsieh SM, Jheng DY, Sun TP, Shieh HL

Received 7 April 2014

Accepted for publication 5 May 2014

Published 28 June 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 3069—3076

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S65674

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Congo Tak-Shing Ching,1,2 Kok-Khun Yong,3 Yan-Dong Yao,4 Huan-Ting Shen,3 Shiu-Man Hsieh,5 Deng-Yun Jheng,1 Tai-Ping Sun,1,6 Hsiu-Li Shieh1

1Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, 2Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Community College, Hong Kong; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Puli Christian Hospital, 6Department of Electronic Engineering, Nan Kai University of Technology, Nantou, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: The aims of this study were to investigate the most effective combination of physical forces from laser, electroporation, and reverse iontophoresis for noninvasive transdermal extraction of uric acid, and to develop a highly sensitive uric acid biosensor (UAB) for quantifying the uric acid extracted. It is believed that the combination of these physical forces has additional benefits for extraction of molecules other than uric acid from human skin. A diffusion cell with porcine skin was used to investigate the most effective combination of these physical forces. UABs coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in an array configuration were developed in this study. The results showed that a combination of laser (0.7 W), electroporation (100 V/cm2), and reverse iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm2) was the most effective and significantly enhanced transdermal extraction of uric acid. A custom-designed UAB coated with ZnO2 nanoparticles and constructed in a 1×3 array configuration (UAB-1×3-ZnO2) demonstrated enough sensitivity (9.4 µA/mM) for quantifying uric acid extracted by the combined physical forces of laser, electroporation, and RI. A good linear relationship (R2=0.894) was demonstrated to exist between the concentration of uric acid (0.2–0.8 mM) inside the diffusion cell and the current response of the UAB-1×3-ZnO2. In conclusion, a new approach to noninvasive transdermal extraction and quantification of uric acid has been established.

Keywords: laser, electroporation, reverse iontophoresis, noninvasive, uric acid, biosensor

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other articles by this author:

Use of electroporation and reverse iontophoresis for extraction of transdermal multibiomarkers

Ching CTS, Fu LS, Sun TP, Hsu TH, Chang KM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:885-894

Published Date: 22 February 2012

Simultaneous, noninvasive, and transdermal extraction of urea and homocysteine by reverse iontophoresis

Congo Tak-Shing Ching, Tzong-Ru Chou, Tai-Ping Sun, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:417-423

Published Date: 20 February 2011

Non-invasive and transdermal measurement of blood uric acid level in human by electroporation and reverse iontophoresis

Chih-Kuei Lee, Congo Tak-Shing Ching, Tai-Ping Sun, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:991-997

Published Date: 19 November 2010

Carbon nanotube composites for glucose biosensor incorporated with reverse iontophoresis function for noninvasive glucose monitoring

Tai-Ping Sun, Hsiu-Li Shieh, Congo Tak-Shing Ching, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:343-349

Published Date: 4 May 2010

A preliminary study of the use of bioimpedance in the screening of squamous tongue cancer

Congo Tak-Shing Ching, Tai-Ping Sun, Su-Hua Huang, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2010, 5:213-220

Published Date: 17 March 2010

Readers of this article also read:

Magnetic microparticle-based multimer detection system for the detection of prion oligomers in sheep

Lim K, Kim SY, Lee B, Segarra C, Kang S, Ju YR, Schmerr MJ, Coste J, Kim SY, Yokoyama T, An SSA

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:241-250

Published Date: 9 September 2015

Ultrafast sonochemical synthesis of protein-inorganic nanoflowers

Batule BS, Park KS, Kim MI, Park HG

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:137-142

Published Date: 25 August 2015

Ultrasound-targeted stromal cell-derived factor-1-loaded microbubble destruction promotes mesenchymal stem cell homing to kidneys in diabetic nephropathy rats

Wu S, Li L, Wang G, Shen W, Xu Y, Liu Z, Zhuo Z, Xia H, Gao Y, Tan K

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:5639-5651

Published Date: 3 December 2014

Diagnostic and therapeutic utility of neuroimaging in depression: an overview

Wise T, Cleare AJ, Herane A, Young AH, Arnone D

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2014, 10:1509-1522

Published Date: 19 August 2014

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for treatment of oral cancer: a review

Calixto G, Bernegossi J, Fonseca-Santos B, Chorilli M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3719-3735

Published Date: 8 August 2014

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery via a polyethylene imine grafted chitosan carrier

Peng YS, Lai PL, Peng S, Wu HC, Yu S, Tseng TY, Wang LF, Chu IM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3163-3174

Published Date: 28 June 2014

Antioxidative fullerol promotes osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells

Yang XL, Li CJ, Wan YP, Smith P, Shang GW, Cui Q

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:4023-4031

Published Date: 20 August 2014