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A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

Authors Dyondi D, Webster T, Banerjee R

Received 10 September 2012

Accepted for publication 9 October 2012

Published 28 December 2012 Volume 2013:8(1) Pages 47—59

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S37953

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee1

1Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

Abstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.

Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

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