A cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2: Chinese version in patients with chronic visceral pain
Authors Wang J, Zhang W, Gao M, Zhang S, Tian D, Chen J
Received 12 July 2016
Accepted for publication 31 October 2016
Published 5 January 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 121—128
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael Schatman
Jiang-Lin Wang,1* Wei-Jun Zhang,2* Min Gao,2 Shengfa Zhang,2 Dong-Hua Tian,2* Jun Chen1,3,4*
1Institute for Biomedical Sciences of Pain, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, 2School of Social Development and Public policy, China Institute of Health, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 3Key Laboratory of Brain Stress and Behavior, People’s Liberation Army, Xi’an, 4Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, Peoples’ Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Objective: The present study aimed to develop a culturally appropriate and functional Standard Mandarin Chinese translation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) and to assess its reliability and validity for characterizing chronic visceral pain in Chinese patients.
Background: The SF-MPQ-2 has been widely used in studies of pain epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, and even pathophysiologic mechanisms to assess the major symptoms of clinical pain. Previous reports have shown favorable reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SF-MPQ-2 in diverse samples of patients with chronic and acute pain. However, a culturally appropriate, functional Chinese version of the scale has never been developed.
Methods: Beaton’s guidelines were used for the translation and back-translation procedures. Patients (n=145) with chronic visceral pain were recruited to complete the Standard Mandarin Chinese version of the SF-MPQ-2 (SF-MPQ-2-CN), of which 41 were asked to complete the SF-MPQ-2-CN a second time, 3 days after the initial visit. The test–retest reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency. Possible components were determined by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and a value of 0.4 was considered requisite for the loading of each factor.
Results: The ICC for subscales ranged from 0.909 to 0.952, and that of the total scale was 0.927, suggesting excellent reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN. Cronbach’s alpha for subscales ranged from 0.896 to 0.916, and that of the total scale was 0.836 and 0.831 for primary and secondary visits, respectively. The factor loading matrix of the SF-MPQ-2-CN ranged from 0.734 to 0.901 for each of the following subscales: continuous, intermittent, neuropathic, and affective, revealing four components similar to the original scale.
Conclusion: The reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN scale are statistically acceptable for the evaluation of Chinese patients with chronic visceral pain.
Keywords: chronic visceral pain, Chinese version of short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2, exploratory factor analysis, reliability, validity
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