A comprehensive review of nongenetic prognostic and predictive factors influencing the heterogeneity of outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer
Gebra Cuyún Carter,1 Amy M Barrett,2 James A Kaye,3 Astra M Liepa,1 Katherine B Winfree,1 William J John1
1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3RTI Health Solutions, Waltham, MA, USA
Abstract: While there have been advances in treatment options for those with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, unmet medical needs remain, partly due to the heterogeneity of treatment effect observed among patients. The goals of this literature review were to provide updated information to complement past reviews and to identify a comprehensive set of nongenetic prognostic and predictive baseline factors that may account for heterogeneity of outcomes in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. A review of the literature between 2000 and 2010 was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. All relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected and data elements were abstracted. A classification system was developed to evaluate the level of evidence for each study. A total of 54 studies were selected for inclusion. Patient-related factors (eg, performance status, sex, and age) were the most extensively researched nongenetic prognostic factors, followed by disease stage and histology. Moderately researched prognostic factors were weight-related variables and number or site of metastases, and the least studied were comorbidities, previous therapy, smoking status, hemoglobin level, and health-related quality of life/symptom severity. The prognostic factors with the most consistently demonstrated associations with outcomes were performance status, number or site of metastases, previous therapy, smoking status, and health-related quality of life. Of the small number of studies that assessed predictive factors, those that were found to be significantly predictive of outcomes were performance status, age, disease stage, previous therapy, race, smoking status, sex, and histology. These results provide a comprehensive overview of nongenetic prognostic and predictive factors assessed in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer over the last decade. This information can be used to inform the design of future clinical trials by suggesting additional subgroups based on nongenetic factors that may be analyzed to further investigate potential prognostic and predictive factors.
Keywords: NSCLC, heterogeneity, treatment outcome, review
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