Back to Journals » Clinical Ophthalmology » Volume 11

A comparison of three different corneal marking methods used to determine cyclotorsion in the horizontal meridian

Authors Lin HY, Fang YT, Chuang YJ, Karlin JN, Chen HY, Lin SY, Lin PJ, Chen M

Received 13 October 2016

Accepted for publication 10 January 2017

Published 8 February 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 311—315


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Hung-Yuan Lin,1–3 Yi-Ting Fang,4 Ya-Jung Chuang,5 Justin N Karlin,6 Hsin-Yang Chen,7 Szu-Yuan Lin,8 Pi-Jung Lin,9 Ming Chen10

1Universal Eye Center, Zhong-Li, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Optometry, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Fu-Jian Medical University, People’s Republic of China; 4Universal Eye Center, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Universal Eye Center, Long-Tan, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 7Department of Ophthalmology, Ningbo First Hospital, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Ophthalmology, Cathay General Hospital, 9Universal Eye Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 10Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Abstract: During toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, surgeons must take particular care to ensure that inaccurate preoperative measurement and intraoperative misalignment do not cause unexpected postoperative residual astigmatism. This retrospective, comparative case series study aimed to analyze the rotational deviation, or cyclotorsion, of three corneal marking methods: VERION digital marker (VDM; reference), horizontal slit beam marking (HSBM), and subjective direct visual marking (SDVM) on the table (using a bevel knife tip). Subjects included 81 eyes of 61 patients (mean age: 65.70±13.14 years; range: 32–91 years) undergoing scheduled cataract surgery. A preoperative reference image was taken of each eye. Subsequently, a slit lamp with the light beam turned to the horizontal meridian was used to align the seated patient’s head, and two reference marks were placed at the 3- and 9-o’clock positions of the corneal limbus using a 27-gauge needle and marking pen (HSBM). Upon transfer to the surgical table, the VDM was used to display a real-time dial scale on the patient’s eye, with the entrance of the temporal clear corneal incision (CCI) at 0° (horizontal meridian). Simultaneously, a bevel knife tip was used to create a marker based on the surgeon’s visual determination of the temporal 0° point (SDVM). We used the VDM to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of axis alignment via deviation from the horizontal reference meridian. Compared with the reference meridian, the SDVM (–3.46°±7.32°, range: –18° to 13°) exhibited greater average relative cyclotorsion versus the HSBM (0.41°±4.92°, range: –10° to 10°). Furthermore, the mean average misalignment was significantly less in the HSBM group versus the SDVM group (t=4.179, P<0.001). The VDM is likely a reliable marking method, similar to the HSBM. In contrast, the SDVM is not entirely reliable. The VDM usage may prevent inaccurate preoperative manual marking during toric IOL implantation.

Keywords: VERION digital marker, horizontal slit beam marking, subjective direct visual marking

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]