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5-Fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus sunitinib or bevacizumab as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomized Phase IIb study

Authors Hecht JR, Mitchell EP, Yoshino T, Welslau M, Lin X, Chow Maneval E, Paolini J, Lechuga MJ, Kretzschmar A

Received 27 January 2014

Accepted for publication 4 May 2014

Published 15 June 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 165—173

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S61408

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

J Randolph Hecht,1 Edith P Mitchell,2 Takayuki Yoshino,3 Manfred Welslau,4 Xun Lin,5 Edna Chow Maneval,6 Jolanda Paolini,7 Maria Jose Lechuga,7 Albrecht Kretzschmar8  

1David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Santa Monica, CA, 2Kimmel Cancer Center of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan; 4Onkologische Praxis Klausmann/Welslau, Aschaffenburg, Germany; 5Pfizer Oncology, La Jolla, 6Seragon Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA, USA; 7Pfizer Oncology, Milan, Italy; 8Klinikum St Georg, Leipzig, Germany

Background: Sunitinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinase receptors implicated in tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this randomized, multicenter, open-label Phase IIb study, sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin plus leucovorin plus 5-fluorouracil) was compared with bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6 as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Methods: Patients were stratified by performance status, baseline lactate dehydrogenase level, and prior adjuvant treatment, and randomized 1:1 to receive sunitinib 37.5 mg/day for 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off plus mFOLFOX6 every 2 weeks or bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus mFOLFOX6 every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and quality of life.
Results: Enrollment was closed early following accrual of 191 patients, based on an interim analysis showing an inferior trend in the primary progression-free survival efficacy endpoint for sunitinib. Ninety-six patients were randomized to sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 and 95 to bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX6. Median progression-free survival was 9.3 months and 15.4 months, respectively, but the objective response rate was similar between the study arms. Median overall survival was 23.7 months and 34.1 months, respectively. Dose reductions and interruptions were more common with sunitinib. Hematologic toxicity was more common in the sunitinib arm.
Conclusion: While the results of the sunitinib arm are comparable with those of previously reported FOLFOX combinations, the sunitinib-based combination was associated with more toxicity than that observed with bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. The bevacizumab arm had an unexpectedly good outcome, and was much better than that seen in the Phase III trials. Combination therapy with sunitinib plus mFOLFOX6 is not recommended for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Keywords: antiangiogenesis, bevacizumab, combination therapy, metastatic colorectal cancer, oxaliplatin, sunitinib

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