5-aminolevulinic acid-incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber-coated metal stent for application in photodynamic therapy
Jin Ju Yoo*, Chan Kim*, Chung-Wook Chung, Young-Il Jeong, Dae Hwan Kang
National Research and Development Center for Hepatibiliary Disease, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Gyeongnam 626-770, Korea
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Background: The study investigated the use of combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and stent placement for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma (CC). For this purpose, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was incorporated into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofiber, and coated onto metal stents. Their efficacy was assessed in PDT towards HuCC-T1 CC cells.
Methods: Fabrication of ALA-PVA nanofiber, and simultaneous coating onto metal stents, was performed through electrospinning. The dark-toxicity, generation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), and PDT effect of ALA and ALA-PVA nanofiber were studied in vitro, using HuCC-T1 CC cells.
Results: The ALA-PVA nanofibers were coated onto metal stents less than 1000 nm in diameter. ALA-only displayed marginal cytotoxicity; ALA-PVA nanofiber showed less cytotoxicity. PpIX generation was not sigficantly different between ALA and ALA-PVA nanofiber treatments. PVA itself did not generate PpIX in tumor cells. ALA and ALA-PVA nanofiber displayed a similar PDT effect on tumor cells. Cell viability was decreased, dose-dependently, until ALA concentration reached 100 µg/mL. Necrosis and apoptosis of tumor cells occurred similarly for ALA and ALA- PVA nanofiber treatments.
Conclusion: The ALA-PVA nanofiber-coated stent is a promising candidate for therapeutic use with cholangiocarcinoma.
Keywords: nanofiber, photodynamic therapy, 5-aminolevulinic acid, poly(vinyl alcohol)
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