Squamous cell papilloma of the conjunctiva due to human papillomavirus (HPV): presentation of two cases and review of literature
Chris Kalogeropoulos,1 Ioannis Koumpoulis,1 Evangelos Papadiotis,2 Aikaterini Zioga,2 Konstantina Gkrepi,2 Chrisavgi Pappa,1 Constantinos Paschides,1 Vasiliki Malamou-Mitsi,2 Miltiadis Aspiotis1
1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Greece
Purpose: We describe two patients with squamous cell papilloma of the conjunctiva due to human papilloma virus (HPV) and review the literature.
Patients and methods: Two patients with conjunctival tumors were examined and treated in the University Eye Clinic and diagnosed in the University Pathology Department, University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece. The first patient was a 48-year-old man presenting with an extended papillomatous lesion in bulbar conjunctiva covering part of the cornea of his right eye. The second patient was a 24-year-old man presenting with a polypoidal papillomatous lesion on the caruncle of his right eye. The two lesions were removed surgically, cryotherapy was applied to the adjacent conjunctiva, and topical mitomycin-C was used. The amniotic membrane was used to restore the conjunctival defect in the first patient. The two removed lesions were sent to the Pathology Department for histopathological examination. Immunohistochemistry, DNA in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were performed.
Results: In the first patient, histopathology showed the presence of a benign squamous papilloma with koilocytosis. DNA in situ hybridization with broad-spectrum probes showed that this patient was positive for HPV DNA. In the second patient, histopathology showed the presence of a squamous papilloma with mild dysplasia and koilocytosis. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for HPV protein and p16 protein. DNA in situ hybridization with broad-spectrum probes showed that the patient was positive for HPV DNA. PCR analysis showed the presence of HPV 6. According to morphological and molecular findings, both patients were diagnosed with squamous cell papilloma due to HPV.
Conclusion: HPV can infect the ocular surface. According to clinical results, the ophthalmologist in cooperation with the pathologist can recommend appropriate laboratory examinations to confirm the diagnosis and successfully treat conjunctival papillomas.
Keywords: conjunctiva, papilloma, human papillomavirus, koilocytosis, in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction
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