Back to Browse Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 3 » Issue 2

Simultaneous transdermal extraction of glucose and lactate from human subjects by reverse iontophoresis

Authors Tak S Ching, Patricia Connolly

Published Date June 2008 Volume 2008:3(2) Pages 211—223

DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S1728

Published 30 June 2008

Tak S Ching1, Patricia Connolly2

1Asia University, Taiwan; 2Bioengineering Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Abstract: This study investigated the possibility of simultaneously extracting glucose and lactate from human subjects, at the same skin location, using transdermal reverse iontophoresis. Transdermal monitoring using iontophoresis is made possible by the skin’s permeability to small molecules and the nanoporous and microporous nature of the structure of skin. The study was intended to provide information which could be used to develop a full, biosensor-based, monitoring system for multiple parameters from transdermal extraction. As a precursor to the human study, in vitro reverse iontophoresis experiments were performed in an artificial skin system to establish the optimum current waveforms to be applied during iontophoresis. In the human study, a bipolar DC current waveform (with reversal of the electrode current direction every 15 minutes) was applied to ten healthy volunteers via skin electrodes and utilized for simultaneous glucose and lactate transdermal extraction at an applied current density of 300 µA/cm2. Glucose and lactate were successfully extracted through each subject’s skin into the conducting gel that formed part of each iontophoresis electrode. The results suggest that it will be possible to noninvasively and simultaneously monitor glucose and lactate levels in patients using this approach and this could have future applications in diagnostic monitoring for a variety of medical conditions.

Keywords: transdermal, iontophoresis, glucose, lactate, diagnostic monitoring

Download Article [PDF] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php

Readers of this article also read:

Correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and fundus autofluorescence in primary open-angle glaucoma

Reznicek L, Seidensticker F, Mann T, Hübert I, Buerger A, Haritoglou C, Neubauer AS, Kampik A, Hirneiss C, Kernt M

Clinical Ophthalmology 2013, 7:1883-1888

Published Date: 19 September 2013

Therapeutic effect of bortezomib for primary plasma cell leukemia followed by auto/allo stem cell transplantation

Ozasa R, Hotta M, Yoshimura H, Nakanishi T, Tamaki T, Fujita S, Nakamichi N, Miyaji M, Ishii K, Ito T, Nomura S

International Medical Case Reports Journal 2012, 5:39-43

Published Date: 6 July 2012

Corrigendum

Sailasuta N, Harris K, Tran T, Ross B

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2011, 7:707-708

Published Date: 25 November 2011

Blood flow interplays with elastin: collagen and MMP: TIMP ratios to maintain healthy vascular structure and function

Poulami Basu, Utpal Sen, Neetu Tyagi,  et al

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2010, 6:215-228

Published Date: 30 March 2010

Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes

Andre Pascal Kengne, Anastase Dzudie, Eugene Sobngwi

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2008, 4:123-130

Published Date: 6 March 2008

Update on stents: Recent studies on the TAXUS® stent system in small vessels

Shuzou Tanimoto, Joost Daemen, Patrick W Serruys

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2007, 3:481-490

Published Date: 4 October 2007

Risk-assessment algorithm and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medical patients

Ana T Rocha, Edison F Paiva, Arnaldo Lichtenstein, Rodolfo Milani Jr, Cyrillo Cavalheiro-Filho,
Francisco H Maffei

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2007, 3:533-553

Published Date: 4 October 2007

Sirolimus-eluting coronary stents: a review

Alexandre Abizaid

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2007, 3:191-201

Published Date: 23 May 2007