Back to Browse Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 3 » Issue 2

Simultaneous transdermal extraction of glucose and lactate from human subjects by reverse iontophoresis

Authors Tak S Ching, Patricia Connolly

Published Date June 2008 Volume 2008:3(2) Pages 211—223

DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S1728

Published 30 June 2008

Tak S Ching1, Patricia Connolly2

1Asia University, Taiwan; 2Bioengineering Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Abstract: This study investigated the possibility of simultaneously extracting glucose and lactate from human subjects, at the same skin location, using transdermal reverse iontophoresis. Transdermal monitoring using iontophoresis is made possible by the skin’s permeability to small molecules and the nanoporous and microporous nature of the structure of skin. The study was intended to provide information which could be used to develop a full, biosensor-based, monitoring system for multiple parameters from transdermal extraction. As a precursor to the human study, in vitro reverse iontophoresis experiments were performed in an artificial skin system to establish the optimum current waveforms to be applied during iontophoresis. In the human study, a bipolar DC current waveform (with reversal of the electrode current direction every 15 minutes) was applied to ten healthy volunteers via skin electrodes and utilized for simultaneous glucose and lactate transdermal extraction at an applied current density of 300 µA/cm2. Glucose and lactate were successfully extracted through each subject’s skin into the conducting gel that formed part of each iontophoresis electrode. The results suggest that it will be possible to noninvasively and simultaneously monitor glucose and lactate levels in patients using this approach and this could have future applications in diagnostic monitoring for a variety of medical conditions.

Keywords: transdermal, iontophoresis, glucose, lactate, diagnostic monitoring

Download Article [PDF] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php

Readers of this article also read:

Vincristine sulfate liposomal injection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia [Corrigendum]

Soosay Raj TA, Smith AM, Moore AS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:4705-4706

Published Date: 5 December 2013

Vincristine sulfate liposomal injection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Soosay Raj TA, Smith AM, Moore AS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:4361-4369

Published Date: 6 November 2013

Reversible exposure of hydrophobic residues on albumin as a novel strategy for formulation of nanodelivery vehicles for taxanes

Garro AG, Beltramo DM, Alasino RV, Leonhard V, Heredia V, Bianco ID

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1193-1200

Published Date: 13 June 2011

Comparison of retinal breaks observed during 23 gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy versus conventional 20 gauge surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Sharif A Issa, Alan Connor, Maged Habib, et al

Clinical Ophthalmology 2011, 5:109-114

Published Date: 20 January 2011

Novel free paclitaxel-loaded poly(L-γ-glutamylglutamine)–paclitaxel nanoparticles

Danbo Yang, Sang Van, Xinguo Jiang, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:85-91

Published Date: 6 January 2011

Transradial approach to lower extremity interventions

Ravikiran Korabathina, Sidharth S Yadav, John T Coppola, et al

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2010, 6:503-509

Published Date: 1 July 2010

Polycystic kidney disease: inheritance, pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment

Christian R Halvorson, Matthew S Bremmer, Stephen C Jacobs

International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 2010, 3:69-83

Published Date: 24 June 2010

A review of thiazolidinediones and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with focus on cardiovascular complications

Behzad Molavi, Negah Rassouli, Suveer Bagwe, Neda Rasouli

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2007, 3:967-973

Published Date: 15 January 2007