Pillow use: the behavior of cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain
Susan J Gordon1,2, Karen A Grimmer-Somers3, Patricia H Trott4
1Associate Professor, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia; 2Member, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Australia; 3Professor of Allied Health, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Director, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Australia; 4Associate Professor, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia
Background: Pillows are intended to support the head and neck in a neutral position to minimize biomechanical stresses on cervical structures whilst sleeping. Biomechanical stresses are associated with waking cervical symptoms. This paper adds to the scant body of research investigating whether different pillow types produce different types and frequencies of waking symptoms in asymptomatic subjects.
Methods: A random-allocation block-design blinded field trial was conducted in a large South Australian regional town. Subjects were side-sleepers using one pillow only, and not receiving treatment for cervicothoracic problems. Waking cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain were recorded daily. Five experimental pillows (polyester, foam regular, foam contour, feather, and latex) were each trialed for a week. Subjects’ ‘own’ pillow was the control (a baseline week, and a washout week between each experimental pillow trial week). Subjects reported waking symptoms related to known factors (other than the pillow), and subjects could ‘drop out’ of any trial pillow week.
Results: Disturbed sleep unrelated to the pillow was common. Waking symptoms occurring at least once in the baseline week were reported by approximately 20% of the subjects on their ‘own’ pillow. The feather trial pillow performed least well, producing the highest frequency of waking symptoms, while the latex pillow performed best. The greatest number of ‘drop outs’ occurred on the feather pillow. The foam contour pillow performed no better than the foam regular pillow.
Conclusion: ‘Own’ pillows did not guarantee symptom-free waking, and thus were a questionable control. The trial pillows had different waking symptom profiles. Latex pillows can be recommended over any other type for control of waking headache and scapular/arm pain.
Keywords: pillow type, cervical stiffness, arm pain, headache
This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php
Other articles by this author:
Measuring the quality of allied health services in Australia: is it a case of “the more we learn, the less we know?”
Grimmer-Somers K, Milanese S, Kumar S
Published Date: 27 July 2012
Extended scope physiotherapy roles for orthopedic outpatients: an update systematic review of the literature
Stanhope J, Grimmer-Somers K, Milanese S, Kumar S, Morris J
Published Date: 7 February 2012
Measuring children’s distress during burns dressing changes: literature search for measures appropriate for indigenous children in South Africa
Louw QA, Grimmer-Somers K, Schrikk A
Published Date: 6 September 2011
Morris J, Grimmer-Somers K, Kumar S, Murphy K, Gilmore L, Ashman B, Perera C, Vine K, Coulter C
Published Date: 22 August 2011
Heath J, Grimmer-Somers K, Milanese S, Hillier S, King E, Johnston K, Wall K, Thorpe O, Young A, Kumar S
Published Date: 15 June 2011
Primary care assessment instruments for patients at risk of, or with, persistent pain: opportunistic findings from a systematic literature review
Karen Grimmer-Somers, Saravana Kumar, Nic Vipond, Gillian Hall
Published Date: 25 June 2009
Karen Grimmer-Somers, Nic Vipond, Saravana Kumar, Gillian Hall
Published Date: 11 March 2009
Karen Grimmer-Somers, Mathew Prior, Jim Robertson
Published Date: 4 December 2008