Back to Browse Journals » Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine » Volume 2

Growth hormone doping: a review

Authors Erotokritou-Mulligan I, Holt RI, Sönksen PH

Published Date July 2011 Volume 2011:2 Pages 99—111


Published 27 July 2011

Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H Sönksen
Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK

Abstract: The use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.

Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at:

Readers of this article also read:

Nanosilver particles in medical applications: synthesis, performance, and toxicity

Ge L, Li Q, Wang M, Ouyang J, Li XJ, Xing MM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:2399-2407

Published Date: 16 May 2014

Aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer in post-menopausal female patients: an update

Schneider RE, Barakat AY, Pippen JE, Osborne CR

Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy 2011, 3:113-125

Published Date: 4 October 2011

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia: comparative study between conventional-dose and low-dose hyperbaric bupivacaine

Imbelloni LE, Sant'Anna R, Fornasari M, Fialho JC

Local and Regional Anesthesia 2011, 4:41-46

Published Date: 3 October 2011

Neurological adverse events following regional anesthesia administration

Christopher D Kent, Laurent Bollag

Local and Regional Anesthesia 2010, 3:115-123

Published Date: 27 October 2010

Management of insomnia: update and new approaches

Thomas Unbehaun, Kai Spiegelhalder, Verena Hirscher, et al

Nature and Science of Sleep 2010, 2:127-138

Published Date: 28 July 2010

Impaired skeletal formation in mice overexpressing DMP1

Michael Albazzaz, Karthikeyan Narayanan, Jianjun Hao, et al

Orthopedic Research and Reviews 2009, 1:1-10

Published Date: 17 September 2009

Prolonged closed cardiac massage using LUCAS device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with prolonged transport time

Edouard Matevossian, Dietrich Doll, Jakob Säckl, Inga Sinicina, et al.

Open Access Emergency Medicine 2009, 1:1-4

Published Date: 27 April 2009

Long-term efficacy and safety of anastrozole for adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer in postmenopausal women

Sharath Gangadhara, Gianfilippo Bertelli

Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 2009, 5:291-300

Published Date: 2 April 2009

Early diagnosis of oral cancer based on the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles

James Chen Yong Kah, Kiang Wei Kho, Caroline Guat Leng Lee, Colin James Richard Sheppard, Ze Xiang Shen, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2007, 2:785-798

Published Date: 28 January 2007