Back to Browse Journals » Medical Devices: Evidence and Research » Volume 5

Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development

Authors Maarek A

Published Date March 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 23—30

DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/MDER.S29319

Received 19 December 2011, Accepted 9 January 2012, Published 5 March 2012

Albert Maarek

Research and Development, LD Technology, Miami, FL, USA

Background: Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS) works and what its clinical applications may be.
Materials and methods: The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode.
Current scientific knowledge: EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1) the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2) the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (α parameter); (3) electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4) the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis) of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e-]) and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation).
Results: For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1) electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection); (2) estimation of interstitial fluid's acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection); (3) estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in children); and (4) estimation of the morphology of the interstitial fluid (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response).
Conclusion: After 10 years of development, the analysis of current scientific knowledge and results of clinical investigations have allowed a better understanding of EIS electrical measurements.

Keywords:
EIS, electro interstitial scan, electrochemical redox reactions, postsympathetic cholinergic electrical stimulation, ADHD, SSRI treatment responses, prostate cancer, diabetes

Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php

Readers of this article also read: