Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development
Research and Development, LD Technology, Miami, FL, USA
Background: Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS) works and what its clinical applications may be.
Materials and methods: The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode.
Current scientific knowledge: EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1) the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2) the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (α parameter); (3) electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4) the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis) of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e-]) and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation).
Results: For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1) electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection); (2) estimation of interstitial fluid's acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection); (3) estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in children); and (4) estimation of the morphology of the interstitial fluid (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment response).
Conclusion: After 10 years of development, the analysis of current scientific knowledge and results of clinical investigations have allowed a better understanding of EIS electrical measurements.
Keywords: EIS, electro interstitial scan, electrochemical redox reactions, postsympathetic cholinergic electrical stimulation, ADHD, SSRI treatment responses, prostate cancer, diabetes
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