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Disparity in risk factor pattern in premature versus late-onset coronary artery disease: a survey of 15,381 patients

Authors Reibis R, Treszl A, Wegscheider K, Bestehorn K, Karmann B, Voeller H

Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:8 Pages 473—481

DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S33305

Received 25 April 2012, Accepted 14 June 2012, Published 17 August 2012

Rona Reibis,1,2 Andras Treszl,3 Karl Wegscheider,3 Kurt Bestehorn,4 Barbara Karmann,4 Heinz Völler1,5

1
Department of Cardiology, Klinik am See, Rehabilitation Center of Cardiovascular Diseases, Rüdersdorf, 2Kardiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis am Park Sanssouci Potsdam, Potsdam, 3Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 4Medical Department, MSD Sharp and Dohme GmbH, Haar, 5Center of Rehabilitation Research, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany

Background: There are few data available regarding the specificity and modifiability of major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in patients with premature versus (vs) late-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was designed to analyze and compare these risk factors.
Patients and methods: Data from 15,381 consecutive patients (mean age, 62.3 ± 11.7 years; female, 33.8%) hospitalized with CAD were collected from a large-scale registry (Transparency Registry to Objectify Guideline-Oriented Risk Factor Management) and analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on age at inclusion: group 1 patients (n = 5725; mean age, 50.5 ± 7.2 years) were males aged < 55 years and females aged < 65 years; group 2 patients (n = 9656; mean age, 69.4 ± 7.4 years) were males aged > 55 years and females aged > 65 years and had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of >100 mg/dL on admission to cardiac rehabilitation. Besides the conventional risk factors, lipoprotein(a) concentrations and glucose tolerance were measured facultatively. Univariate (chi-square test) and multivariate logistic regression models were used.
Results: Cigarette smoking (group 1 at 31.5% vs group 2 at 9.4%; P < 0.001), family history of CAD (group 1 at 43.6% vs group 2 at 26.5%; P < 0.001), and dyslipidemia (group 1 at 92.7% vs group 2 at 91.8%; P < 0.001) were dominant risk factors in the younger group. Arterial hypertension (group 1 at 71.4% vs group 2 at 87.0%; P < 0.001) and diabetes (group 1 at 23.5% vs group 2 at 30.1%; P < 0.001) were dominant risk factors in the older group. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes were less frequent in the younger group (Ptrend = 0.038), and identical lipoprotein(a) concentration levels of >30 mg/dL were found in both groups (8.0%; P = 0.810). Modification of lipid profile and blood pressure was more effective in the younger group (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dL: group 1 at 66.3% vs group 2 at 61.1%; systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg: group 1 at 91.7% vs group 2 at 83.0%; P < 0.001).
Conclusion: CV risk factors differ markedly between premature and non-premature CAD. Cardiac rehabilitation provides an opportunity to reinforce secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome.

Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, premature manifestation, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetes, cholesterol

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