Application of basic pharmacology and dispensing practice of antibiotics in accredited drug-dispensing outlets in Tanzania
OM Minzi,1 VS Manyilizu2
1Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2Logistics System Strengthening Unit, John Snow Inc, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Background: Provision of pharmaceutical services in accredited drug-dispensing outlets (ADDOs) in Tanzania has not been reported. This study compared the antibiotics dispensing practice between ADDOs and part II shops, or duka la dawa baridi (DLDBs), in Tanzania.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in ADDOs and DLDBs. A simulated client method for data collection was used, and a total of 85 ADDOs, located in Mvomero, Kilombero, and Morogoro rural districts, were compared with 60 DLDBs located in Kibaha district. The research assistants posed as simulated clients and requested to buy antibiotics from ADDOs and DLDBs after presenting a case scenario or disease condition. Among the diseases presented were those requiring antibiotics and those usually managed only by oral rehydration salt or analgesics. The simulated clients wanted to know the antibiotics that were available at the shop. The posed questions set a convincing ground to the dispenser either to dispense the antibiotic directly, request a prescription, or refer the patient to a health facility. Proportions were used to summarize categorical variables between ADDOs and DLDBs, and the chi-square test was used to test for statistical difference between the two drug-outlet types in terms of antibiotic-dispensing practice.
Results: As many as 40% of trained ADDO dispensers no longer worked at the ADDO shops, so some of the shops employed untrained staff. A larger proportion of ADDOs than DLDBs dispensed antibiotics without prescriptions (P = 0.004). The overall results indicate that there was no difference between the two types of shops in terms of adhering to regulations for dispensing antibiotics. However, in some circumstances, eg, antibiotic sale without prescription and no referral made, for complicated cases, ADDOs performed worse than DLDBs. As many as 30% of DLDBs and 35% of ADDOs dispensed incomplete doses of antibiotics. In both ADDOs and DLDBs, fortified procaine penicillin powder was dispensed as topical application for injuries.
Conclusion: There was no statistical difference between ADDOs and DLDBs in the violation of dispensing practice and both ADDOs and DLDBs expressed poor knowledge of the basic pharmacology of antibiotics.
Keywords: antibiotic-dispensing practice, duka la dawa baridi, accredited drug-dispensing outlets
This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php
Readers of this article also read:
Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening
Published Date: 21 January 2013
Zanjani F, Hoogland AI, Downer BG
Published Date: 25 February 2013
Prescription painkillers and controlled substances: an appraisal of drug information provided by six US pharmacies
Published Date: 25 February 2013
Oral available agents in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis an overview of merits and culprits
Thöne J, Ellrichmann G
Published Date: 26 February 2013
Sharafkhaneh A, Majid H, Gross NJ
Published Date: 8 March 2013
Patient safety in orthopedic surgery: prioritizing key areas of iatrogenic harm through an analysis of 48,095 incidents reported to a national database of errors
Panesar SS, Carson-Stevens A, Salvilla SA, Patel B, Mirza SB, Mann B
Published Date: 24 March 2013
Ali T, Kaitha S, Mahmood S, Ftesi A, Stone J, Bronze MS
Published Date: 28 March 2013
Diagnostic sensitivity for invasive cervical carcinoma of high risk HPV tests performed on SurePath™ liquid-based pap specimens
Published Date: 31 March 2013
Pharmacovigilance as a tool for safety and monitoring: a review of general issues and the specific challenges with end-stage renal failure patients
Jacob D, Marron B, Ehrlich J, Rutherford PA
Published Date: 15 April 2013
Rachidi S, Awada S, Al-Hajje A, Bawab W, Zein S, Saleh N, Salameh P
Published Date: 15 May 2013